Image d'amplitude de vibration en DFRT PFM sur nanofils de ZnO (Vac = 300mV / max vibration 70pm / taille : 500nm x 175nm)
Image d'amplitude de vibration latérale en DFRT PFM sur couche de KNNO (Vac = 300 mV / taille : 1µm x 350nm)


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AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
Aspe, B., Demange, V., Waroquet, A., Castel, X., Gautier, B., Simon, Q., Albertini, D., Zaghrioui, M., Nadaud, K., Deputier, S., Gouttefangeas, F., Sauleau, R. and Guilloux-Viry, M. Tetragonal tungsten bronze phase thin films in the K-Na-Nb-O system: Pulsed laser deposition, structural and dielectric characterizations 2020 JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS
Vol. 827 
article DOI  
Abstract: Pulsed laser deposition parameters have been determined to synthesize
pure Tetragonal Tungsten Bronze (TTB) phase thin films in the
(K,Na)-Nb-O system (KNN). In relation to the high volatility of alkaline
elements, it was found that the target composition and the
target-substrate distance are of first importance. The TTB phase was
identified by X-ray and electron diffraction and the surface
microstructure consisting mainly of nanorods supports the formation of
hallmark of the TTB phase. Poly-oriented nanorods have been obtained on
both C-plane sapphire and (111)Pt/TiO2/SiO2/(001)Si substrates whereas
horizontal nanorods oriented along the (hk0) planes have been grown on
(100) and (110) SrTiO3. All the nanorods are parallel together when
grown on (110) SrTiO3 and they present two in-plane orientations rotated
of 90 degrees from each other on (100) SrTiO3. Dielectric
characteristics (dielectric permittivity er, and loss tangent tan delta)
have been measured at low (1 kHz - 1 MHz) and high (1 GHz-40 GHz)
frequencies, on films deposited on Pt coated silicon and sapphire,
respectively. A value of epsilon(r) = 200 at 1 kHz with tan delta =
0.015 were measured in a parallel plate capacitor configuration, whereas
epsilon(r) = 130 and tan delta = 0.20 at 10 GHz were retrieved from
transmission lines printed on the KNN TTB thin film grown on C-plane
sapphire. Raman investigations of the TTB films were performed in the
temperature range 77-873 K, confirming the TTB phase formation and the
absence of structural transition. Piezoelectric Force Microscopy
measurements evidenced a piezoelectric signal although no switching
could be performed. However the dielectric measurements, complicated by
high leakage currents when a DC voltage was applied, did not evidence
any proof of ferroelectricity for the undoped KNN TTB films whereas
results reported on other niobates (A,A')(6)Nb10O30 (with A: K, Na and
A': Sr, Ba, Ca) have shown Curie temperatures, lying between 156 degrees
C and 560 degrees C, separating the paraelectric phase (space group:
P4/mbm N degrees 127) and the ferroelectric one (space group: P4bm N
degrees 100). (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Aspe2020,
  author = {Aspe, B. and Demange, V and Waroquet, A. and Castel, X. and Gautier, B. and Simon, Q. and Albertini, D. and Zaghrioui, M. and Nadaud, K. and Deputier, S. and Gouttefangeas, F. and Sauleau, R. and Guilloux-Viry, M.},
  title = {Tetragonal tungsten bronze phase thin films in the K-Na-Nb-O system: Pulsed laser deposition, structural and dielectric characterizations},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {827},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2020.154341}
}
Puyoo, E. and Albertini, D. Conductive Filament Localization Within Crossbar Resistive Memories by Scanning Joule Expansion Microscopy 2020 IEEE Electron Device Letters
Vol. 41(6), pp. 848-851 
article DOI  
BibTeX:
@article{Puyoo_2020,
  author = {Etienne Puyoo and David Albertini},
  title = {Conductive Filament Localization Within Crossbar Resistive Memories by Scanning Joule Expansion Microscopy},
  journal = {IEEE Electron Device Letters},
  publisher = {Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)},
  year = {2020},
  volume = {41},
  number = {6},
  pages = {848--851},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1109/led.2020.2986543}
}
Kuprenaite, S., Margueron, S., Raschetti, M., Millon, C., Baron, T., Daniau, W., Ballandras, S., Gautier, B., Albertini, D., Boulet, P. and Bartasyte, A. Effect of LiNbO3 polarity on the structural, optical and acoustic properties of epitaxial ZnO and MgxZn1-xO films 2018 JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS
Vol. 51(48) 
article DOI  
Abstract: The effect of LiNbO3 substrate polarization on a charge density at the
interface with epitaxial ZnO and MgxZn1-xO films was studied in
comparison with ZnO films on dielectric sapphire substrates. An
excitonic emission and optical properties such as band gap energy,
refraction index, absorption and reflectivity of the ZnO/LiNbO3
structures were studied. The effect of interface charges on the
performance of surface acoustic waves with frequency of 2.7 GHz was
investigated, as well. The stimulated cavity mode emission was observed
due to attained quasi-phase matching conditions for thin ZnO films on
sapphire at high laser excitation power. The positive polarization of
the ferroelectric substrate induced the band bending of the
semiconductor layer, resulting in the accumulation of the negative
charges at the ferroelectric/semiconductor interface, which induced an
increased reflectivity, a generation of oxygen emission lines in PL
spectra under laser excitation, and an increased electromechanical
coupling of surface acoustic waves. The negative polarization of the
substrate increased atomic peening during sputtering deposition, which
induced deteriorated quality of texture and in-plane orientation and
increased the residual stresses in ZnO and MgxZn1-xO films.
BibTeX:
@article{Kuprenaite2018,
  author = {Kuprenaite, Sabina and Margueron, Samuel and Raschetti, Marina and Millon, Cyril and Baron, Thomas and Daniau, William and Ballandras, Sylvain and Gautier, Brice and Albertini, David and Boulet, Pascal and Bartasyte, Ausrine},
  title = {Effect of LiNbO3 polarity on the structural, optical and acoustic properties of epitaxial ZnO and MgxZn1-xO films},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS},
  year = {2018},
  volume = {51},
  number = {48},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6463/aadcce}
}
Martin, S., Baboux, N., Albertini, D. and Gautier, B. Accurate measurement at the nanoscale of remnant polarisation charge in ferroelectric films 2018 2018 CONFERENCE ON PRECISION ELECTROMAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS (CPEM 2018)  inproceedings  
Abstract: A method for the measurement of the remnant polarisation charge of
ferroelectric films at the nanoscale is proposed. It is based on current
measurement by an atomic force microscope and imposes a capacitive
correction in order to extract the signal from the noise, several orders
of magnitude higher than the signal to be measured. A remnant charge of
4.2 fC could be measured on a PbZrTiO3 thin film. Solutions to decrease
the noise are proposed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Martin2018,
  author = {Martin, Simon and Baboux, Nicolas and Albertini, David and Gautier, Brice},
  title = {Accurate measurement at the nanoscale of remnant polarisation charge in ferroelectric films},
  booktitle = {2018 CONFERENCE ON PRECISION ELECTROMAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS (CPEM 2018)},
  year = {2018},
  note = {Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), Paris, FRANCE, JUL 08-13, 2018}
}
Guillemin, S., Parize, R., Carabetta, J., Cantelli, V., Albertini, D., Gautier, B., Bremond, G., Fong, D.D., Renevier, H. and Consonni, V. Quantitative and simultaneous analysis of the polarity of polycrystalline ZnO seed layers and related nanowires grown by wet chemical deposition 2017 NANOTECHNOLOGY
Vol. 28(9) 
article DOI  
Abstract: The polarity in ZnO nanowires is an important issue since it strongly
affects surface configuration and reactivity, nucleation and growth,
electro-optical properties, and nanoscale-engineering device
performances. However, measuring statistically the polarity of ZnO
nanowire arrays grown by chemical bath deposition and elucidating its
correlation with the polarity of the underneath polycrystalline ZnO seed
layer grown by the sol-gel process represents a major difficulty. To
address that issue, we combine resonant x-ray diffraction (XRD) at Zn
K-edge using synchrotron radiation with piezoelectric force microscopy
and polarity-sensitive chemical etching to statistically investigate the
polarity of more than 107 nano-objects both on the macroscopic and local
microscopic scales, respectively. By using high temperature annealing
under an argon atmosphere, it is shown that the compact, highly c-axis
oriented ZnO seed layer is more than 92% Zn-polar and that only a few
small O-polar ZnO grains with an amount less than 8% are formed.
Correlatively, the resulting ZnO nanowires are also found to be
Zn-polar, indicating that their polarity is transferred from the c-axis
oriented ZnO grains acting as nucleation sites in the seed layer. These
findings pave the way for the development of new strategies to form
unipolar ZnO nanowire arrays as a requirement for a number of
nanoscale-engineering devices like piezoelectric nanogenerators. They
also highlight the great advantage of resonant XRD as a macroscopic,
non-destructive method to simultaneously and statistically measure the
polarity of ZnO nanowire arrays and of the underneath ZnO seed layer.
BibTeX:
@article{Guillemin2017,
  author = {Guillemin, Sophie and Parize, Romain and Carabetta, Joseph and Cantelli, Valentina and Albertini, David and Gautier, Brice and Bremond, Georges and Fong, Dillon D. and Renevier, Hubert and Consonni, Vincent},
  title = {Quantitative and simultaneous analysis of the polarity of polycrystalline ZnO seed layers and related nanowires grown by wet chemical deposition},
  journal = {NANOTECHNOLOGY},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {28},
  number = {9},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa5657}
}
Martin, S., Baboux, N., Albertini, D. and Gautier, B. Electrical properties of Molecular Beam Epitaxy grown Barium Titanate probed by conductive Atomic Force Microscopy 2017 THIN SOLID FILMS
Vol. 642, pp. 324-327 
article DOI  
Abstract: The electrical properties of Barium Titanate 60 nm thick layers grown by
Molecular Beam Epitaxy has been probed at the nanoscale by
Conductive-Atomic Force Microscopy in Ultra-High Vacuum and in air, and
the results compared to electrical measurements obtained on large
electrodes. The role of the atmosphere of measurement is clearly
highlighted by the absence of resistive memory effect when the
measurements are operated in air. Considering the possibly high
concentration of oxygen vacancies in such samples, we conclude that the
difference might be explained by the annihilation of the oxygen
vacancies by the oxygen of the environment. This emphasises the need to
control precisely the atmosphere of measurement when probing the
electrical properties of such thin dielectric films by atomic force
microscope.
BibTeX:
@article{Martin2017,
  author = {Martin, Simon and Baboux, Nicolas and Albertini, David and Gautier, Brice},
  title = {Electrical properties of Molecular Beam Epitaxy grown Barium Titanate probed by conductive Atomic Force Microscopy},
  journal = {THIN SOLID FILMS},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {642},
  pages = {324-327},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2017.09.049}
}
Martin, S., Baboux, N., Albertini, D. and Gautier, B. A new technique based on current measurement for nanoscale ferroelectricity assessment: Nano-positive up negative down 2017 REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS
Vol. 88(2) 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new procedure which aims at measuring the
polarisation switching current at the nanoscale on ferroelectric thin
films with the atomic force microscope tip used as a top electrode. Our
technique is an adaptation of the so-called positive up negative down
method commonly operated on large electrodes. The main obstacle that
must be overcome to implement such measurement is the enhancement of the
signal to noise ratio, in a context where the stray capacitance of the
sample/tip/lever/lever holder system generates a dielectric displacement
current several orders of magnitude higher than the current to be
measured. This problem is solved by the subtraction of the displacement
current through a reference capacitance. For the first time, we show an
example of nanoscale positive up negative down measurement of the
polarisation charge on a PbZrTiO3 thin film and compare the measured
value with paraelectric samples. From the comparison with macroscopic
measurement, we deduce the effective area of contact between the tip and
the sample. Published by AIP Publishing.
BibTeX:
@article{Martin2017a,
  author = {Martin, Simon and Baboux, Nicolas and Albertini, David and Gautier, Brice},
  title = {A new technique based on current measurement for nanoscale ferroelectricity assessment: Nano-positive up negative down},
  journal = {REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {88},
  number = {2},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4974953}
}
Martin, S., Baboux, N., Albertini, D. and Gautier, B. Interpretation of multiscale characterization techniques to assess ferroelectricity: The case of GaFeO3 2017 ULTRAMICROSCOPY
Vol. 172, pp. 47-51 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a thorough experimental procedure to assess
the ferroelectricity of thin films, and apply this procedure to Pulsed
Laser Deposition grown GaFeO3 thin films at the macroscale by means of
Polarisation-Voltage hysteresis and at the nanoscale by Piezoresponse
Force Microscopy. GaFeO3 is a serious candidate for the multiferroicity
at room temperature, being ferrimagnetic and possibly ferroelectric.
However, the non-ambiguous measurement of ferroelectric polarisation of
such thin films remains a challenge. We show that although doped to
decrease the leakage currents, the samples remain too leaky to allow any
detection of a polarisation current, whereas Piezoresponse Force
Microscopy images are indeed obtained in certain conditions.
Nevertheless, the images obtained from scanning probe methods must be
questioned in that context. This is why we propose to obtain PFM images
at much higher frequencies to discriminate between artefactual images
and true ferroelectric behaviour. The application of the method combined
with the comparison with results obtained on a PbZrTiO3 sample allow to
rule out the ferroelectricity of our GaFeO3 samples. Beyond the problem
of GaFeO3, our objective is to propose a method which enables to assess
objectively the ferroelectricity of any leaky film.
BibTeX:
@article{Martin2017b,
  author = {Martin, Simon and Baboux, Nicolas and Albertini, David and Gautier, Brice},
  title = {Interpretation of multiscale characterization techniques to assess ferroelectricity: The case of GaFeO3},
  journal = {ULTRAMICROSCOPY},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {172},
  pages = {47-51},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2016.10.012}
}
Thomas, D., Puyoo, E., Le Berre, M., Militaru, L., Koneti, S., Malchere, A., Epicier, T., Roiban, L., Albertini, D., Sabac, A. and Calmon, F. Investigation of the in-plane and out-of-plane electrical properties of metallic nanoparticles in dielectric matrix thin films elaborated by atomic layer deposition 2017 NANOTECHNOLOGY
Vol. 28(45) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Pt nanoparticles in a Al2O3 dielectric matrix thin films are elaborated
by means of atomic layer deposition. These nanostructured thin films are
integrated in vertical and planar test structures in order to assess
both their in-plane and out-of-plane electrical properties. A shadow
edge evaporation process is used to develop planar devices with
electrode separation distances in the range of 30 nm. Both vertical and
planar test structures show a Poole-Frenkel conduction mechanism. Low
trap energy levels (<0.1 eV) are identified for the two test structures
which indicates that the Pt islands themselves are not acting as traps
in the PF mechanism. Furthermore, a more than three order of magnitude
current density difference is observed between the two geometries. This
electrical anisotropy is attributed to a large electron mobility
difference in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions which can be
related to different trap distributions in both directions.
BibTeX:
@article{Thomas2017,
  author = {Thomas, D. and Puyoo, E. and Le Berre, M. and Militaru, L. and Koneti, S. and Malchere, A. and Epicier, T. and Roiban, L. and Albertini, D. and Sabac, A. and Calmon, F.},
  title = {Investigation of the in-plane and out-of-plane electrical properties of metallic nanoparticles in dielectric matrix thin films elaborated by atomic layer deposition},
  journal = {NANOTECHNOLOGY},
  year = {2017},
  volume = {28},
  number = {45},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/aa8b5e}
}
Barbos, C., Blanc-Pelissier, D., Fave, A., Blanquet, E., Crisci, A., Fourmond, E., Albertini, D., Sabac, A., Ayadi, K., Girard, P. and Lemiti, M. Characterization of Al2O3 thin films prepared by thermal ALD 2015
Vol. 775TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SILICON PHOTOVOLTAICS, SILICONPV 2015, pp. 558-564 
inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Thermal Atomic Layer Deposition was used to deposit Al2O3 layers with
thickness ranging from 2 to 100 nm for surface passivation of silicon
solar cells. Various characterization techniques were used to evaluate
the chemical, physical and optical properties of the layers and
interfaces. Minority carrier lifetime around 2 ms was measured for an
optimal thickness of 15 nm for as-deposited layers on high resistivity
n-type silicon substrate. An annealing step at 400 degrees C increases
lifetime up to 5.7ms for the same structure. (C) 2015 The Authors.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Barbos2015,
  author = {Barbos, Corina and Blanc-Pelissier, Daniele and Fave, Alain and Blanquet, Elisabeth and Crisci, Alexandre and Fourmond, Erwann and Albertini, David and Sabac, Andrei and Ayadi, Khaled and Girard, Philippe and Lemiti, Mustapha},
  title = {Characterization of Al2O3 thin films prepared by thermal ALD},
  booktitle = {5TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SILICON PHOTOVOLTAICS, SILICONPV 2015},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {77},
  pages = {558-564},
  note = {5th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics (SiliconPV), Univ Konstanz, Konstanz, GERMANY, MAR 23-25, 2015},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.080}
}
Guillaume, N., Puyoo, E., Le Berre, M., Albertini, D., Baboux, N., Chevalier, C., Ayadi, K., Gregoire, J., Gautier, B. and Calmon, F. Study and characterization of the irreversible transformation of electrically stressed planar Ti/TiOx/Ti junctions 2015 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
Vol. 118(14) 
article DOI  
Abstract: We investigate the properties and characteristics of planar Ti/TiOx/Ti
junctions, which consist of transverse TiOx lines drawn on Ti test
patterns. Junctions are elaborated by means of local anodic oxidation
using atomic force microscopy. An irreversible morphological
transformation occurring in a reproducible manner is observed when these
planar junctions are electrically stressed under ambient atmosphere.
Structural and chemical analyses based on transmission electron
microscopy techniques reveal the extension of the initial amorphous TiOx
into a crystalline rutile phase. This irreversible transformation is
proven to vanish completely if the electrical stress occurs under vacuum
atmosphere. Finally, we carry out temperature dependent electrical
measurements in order to elucidate their conduction mechanism: Schottky
emission above an ultra-low potential barrier is assumed to dominate
under vacuum atmosphere whereas ionic conduction seems to prevail in
air. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.
BibTeX:
@article{Guillaume2015,
  author = {Guillaume, N. and Puyoo, E. and Le Berre, M. and Albertini, D. and Baboux, N. and Chevalier, C. and Ayadi, K. and Gregoire, J. and Gautier, B. and Calmon, F.},
  title = {Study and characterization of the irreversible transformation of electrically stressed planar Ti/TiOx/Ti junctions},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS},
  year = {2015},
  volume = {118},
  number = {14},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4932646}
}
Borowiak, A.S., Baboux, N., Albertini, D., Vilquin, B., Saint Girons, G., Pelloquin, S. and Gautier, B. Electromechanical response of amorphous LaAlO3 thin film probed by scanning probe microscopies 2014 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS
Vol. 105(1) 
article DOI  
Abstract: The electromechanical response of a 3nm thick amorphous LaAlO3 layer
obtained by molecular beam epitaxy has been studied using scanning probe
microscopies. Although this kind of sample is not ferroelectric due to
its amorphous nature, the resulting images are identical to what is
generally obtained on truly ferroelectric samples probed by
piezoresponse force microscopy: domains of apparently opposite
polarisation are detected, and perfect, square shaped hysteresis loops
are recorded. Moreover, written patterns are stable within 72 h. We
discuss in the general case the possible origins of this behaviour in
terms of charge injection, ionic conduction and motion of oxygen
vacancies. In the case presented in this paper, since the writing
process has been conducted with applied voltages lower than the
injection threshold measured by conductive atomic force Microscopy,
allowing to withdraw the hypothesis of charge injection in the sample,
we propose that a bistable distribution of oxygen vacancies is
responsible for this contrast. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
BibTeX:
@article{Borowiak2014,
  author = {Borowiak, Alexis S. and Baboux, Nicolas and Albertini, David and Vilquin, Bertrand and Saint Girons, Guillaume and Pelloquin, Sylvain and Gautier, Brice},
  title = {Electromechanical response of amorphous LaAlO3 thin film probed by scanning probe microscopies},
  journal = {APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {105},
  number = {1},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4889853}
}
Fares, B., Gautier, B., Albertini, D., Mzerd, A. and Loghmarti, M. Imaging by atomic force microscopy of the properties difference of the layers covering the facets created during SIMS analysis 2014 APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE
Vol. 308, pp. 24-30 
article DOI  
Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used in tapping mode in order to study
the roughness created in the crater bottom during secondary ions mass
spectrometry (SIMS) analysis in silicon, using O-2(+) primary ions
without flooding. Previous studies of the chemical composition of the
facets created during the analysis have lead to the conclusion that the
facets oriented toward the O-2(+) beam during the ionic bombardment were
close to SiO2 in composition, while the facets hidden from the beam were
covered with asubstoichiometric oxide SiOx (with x < 2). We show that
the AFM phase contrast during tapping modeobservation of the facets
reflects this composition difference, revealing a sharp contrast between
thefacets. The observed contrast may arise from the different chemical
composition of the facets, leading to a different energy dissipation of
the tip/sample system over Si and SiO2 due to the different properties
ofthe materials (hardness, adhesion, etc.). As a comparison, an
observation of a surface covered with SiO2 and Si (SiO2 deposed with a
90 nm or 4 nm thickness, and partially removed from a Si surface) shows
the same kind of contrast. (C) 2014 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Fares2014,
  author = {Fares, B. and Gautier, B. and Albertini, D. and Mzerd, A. and Loghmarti, M.},
  title = {Imaging by atomic force microscopy of the properties difference of the layers covering the facets created during SIMS analysis},
  journal = {APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {308},
  pages = {24-30},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.04.054}
}
Grandfond, A., Gautier, B., Militaru, L., Albertini, D. and Descamps-Mandine, A. Spurious phenomena occurring during current measurement on ultra-thin dielectric layers: From electro-thermal effects to surface damage 2014 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
Vol. 115(13) 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this paper, the conduction properties of dielectric ultra-thin layers
are studied using atomic force microscopy. Especially, the
conductive-atomic force microscope allows to measure the leakage current
at the nanoscale and to study the degradation mechanisms locally.
Nonetheless, the dielectric layer seems to be damaged by a technique's
specific phenomenon: hillocks appear when a positive tip bias is applied
on different dielectrics. In this paper, the formation of these hillocks
is studied. Contrary to what is observed during the dielectric
breakdown, the conductivity is reduced after hillocks formation which
occurs after the dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we have observed the
formation of cavities in the silicon substrate linked to the formation
of hillocks, which is not compatible with a swelling process (as
dielectric breakdown induced epitaxy). We propose that these results may
be explained by an electro-thermal effect due to the large dissipated
energy, maybe combined with the oxidation of the substrate. Finally, the
interdependence of measurements is demonstrated during serial
acquisition. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
BibTeX:
@article{Grandfond2014,
  author = {Grandfond, A. and Gautier, B. and Militaru, L. and Albertini, D. and Descamps-Mandine, A.},
  title = {Spurious phenomena occurring during current measurement on ultra-thin dielectric layers: From electro-thermal effects to surface damage},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {115},
  number = {13},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4869182}
}
Mazet, L., Bachelet, R., Louahadj, L., Albertini, D., Gautier, B., Cours, R., Schamm-Chardon, S., Saint-Girons, G. and Dubourdieu, C. Structural study and ferroelectricity of epitaxial BaTiO3 films on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy 2014 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
Vol. 116(21) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Integration of epitaxial complex ferroelectric oxides such as BaTiO3 on
semiconductor substrates depends on the ability to finely control their
structure and properties, which are strongly correlated. The epitaxial
growth of thin BaTiO3 films with high interfacial quality still remains
scarcely investigated on semiconductors; a systematic investigation of
processing conditions is missing although they determine the cationic
composition, the oxygen content, and the microstructure, which, in turn,
play a major role on the ferroelectric properties. We report here the
study of various relevant deposition parameters in molecular beam
epitaxy for the growth of epitaxial tetragonal BaTiO3 thin films on
silicon substrates. The films were grown using a 4 nm-thick epitaxial
SrTiO3 buffer layer. We show that the tetragonality of the BaTiO3 films,
the crystalline domain orientations, and SiO2 interfacial layer regrowth
strongly depend on the oxygen partial pressure and temperature during
the growth and on the post-deposition anneal. The ferroelectricity of
the films, probed using piezoresponse force microscopy, is obtained in
controlled temperature and oxygen pressure conditions with a
polarization perpendicular to the surface. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.
BibTeX:
@article{Mazet2014,
  author = {Mazet, L. and Bachelet, R. and Louahadj, L. and Albertini, D. and Gautier, B. and Cours, R. and Schamm-Chardon, S. and Saint-Girons, G. and Dubourdieu, C.},
  title = {Structural study and ferroelectricity of epitaxial BaTiO3 films on silicon grown by molecular beam epitaxy},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS},
  year = {2014},
  volume = {116},
  number = {21},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4902165}
}
Louahadj, L., Le Bourdais, D., Largeau, L., Agnus, G., Mazet, L., Bachelet, R., Regreny, P., Albertini, D., Pillard, V., Dubourdieu, C., Gautier, B., Lecoeur, P. and Saint-Girons, G. Ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O-3 epitaxial layers on GaAs 2013 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS
Vol. 103(21) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Ferroelectric epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O-3 (PZT) layers were grown by pulsed
laser deposition on SrTiO3/GaAs templates fabricated by molecular beam
epitaxy. The templates present an excellent structural quality and the
SrTiO3/GaAs is abrupt at the atomic scale. The PZT layers contain a- and
c-domains, as shown by X-Ray diffraction analyses. Piezoforce microscopy
experiments and macroscopic electrical characterizations indicate that
PZT is ferroelectric. A relative dielectric permittivity of 164 is
extracted from these measurements. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
BibTeX:
@article{Louahadj2013,
  author = {Louahadj, L. and Le Bourdais, D. and Largeau, L. and Agnus, G. and Mazet, L. and Bachelet, R. and Regreny, P. and Albertini, D. and Pillard, V. and Dubourdieu, C. and Gautier, B. and Lecoeur, P. and Saint-Girons, G.},
  title = {Ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O-3 epitaxial layers on GaAs},
  journal = {APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {103},
  number = {21},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4831738}
}
Pelloquin, S., Saint-Girons, G., Baboux, N., Albertini, D., Hourani, W., Penuelas, J., Grenet, G., Plossu, C. and Hollinger, G. LaAlO3/Si capacitors: Comparison of different molecular beam deposition conditions and their impact on electrical properties 2013 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
Vol. 113(3) 
article DOI  
Abstract: A study of the structural and electrical properties of amorphous LaAlO3
(LAO)/Si thin films fabricated by molecular beam deposition (MBD) is
presented. Two substrate preparation procedures have been explored
namely a high temperature substrate preparation technique-leading to a
step and terraces surface morphology-and a chemical HF-based surface
cleaning. The LAO deposition conditions were improved by introducing
atomic plasma-prepared oxygen instead of classical molecular O-2 in the
chamber. An Au/Ni stack was used as the top electrode for its electrical
characteristics. The physico-chemical properties (surface topography,
thickness homogeneity, LAO/Si interface quality) and electrical
performance (capacitance and current versus voltage and TunA current
topography) of the samples were systematically evaluated. Deposition
conditions (substrate temperature of 550 degrees C, oxygen partial
pressure settled at 10(-6) Torr, and 550 W of power applied to the O-2
plasma) and post-depositions treatments were investigated to optimize
the dielectric constant (kappa) and leakage currents density (J(Gate) at
vertical bar V-Gate vertical bar vertical bar V-FB - 1 vertical bar). In
the best reproducible conditions, we obtained a LAO/Si layer with a
dielectric constant of 16, an equivalent oxide thickness of 8.7
angstrom, and J(Gate) approximate to 10(-2) A/cm(2). This confirms the
importance of LaAlO3 as an alternative high-kappa for ITRS sub-22 nm
technology node. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4769890]
BibTeX:
@article{Pelloquin2013,
  author = {Pelloquin, Sylvain and Saint-Girons, Guillaume and Baboux, Nicolas and Albertini, David and Hourani, Wael and Penuelas, Jose and Grenet, Genevieve and Plossu, Carole and Hollinger, Guy},
  title = {LaAlO3/Si capacitors: Comparison of different molecular beam deposition conditions and their impact on electrical properties},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {113},
  number = {3},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4769890}
}
Thomasson, A., Cherifi, S., Lefevre, C., Roulland, F., Gautier, B., Albertini, D., Meny, C. and Viart, N. Room temperature multiferroicity in Ga0.6Fe1.4O3:Mg thin films 2013 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
Vol. 113(21) 
article DOI  
Abstract: We report on the multiferroic behavior of 2magnesium-doped
Ga0.6Fe1.4O3 thin film at room temperature. The sample was grown by
pulsed laser deposition on a Pt-coated Yttrium-Stabilized Zirconia
substrate. Magnetic measurements indicate a net magnetization of 105
emu/cm(3) at 295 K, and the persistence of magnetic ordering above room
temperature. Ferroelectric measurements show clear polarization
switching with negligible contribution from leakage currents, with a
polarization of 0.2 mu C/cm(-2) and a coercive field of 133 kV/cm.
Scanning probe microscopy confirms the low leakage current and detects a
stable piezoelectric signal. This could open original perspectives for
the application of single-phased multiferroic systems. (C) 2013 AIP
Publishing LLC.
BibTeX:
@article{Thomasson2013,
  author = {Thomasson, A. and Cherifi, S. and Lefevre, C. and Roulland, F. and Gautier, B. and Albertini, D. and Meny, C. and Viart, N.},
  title = {Room temperature multiferroicity in Ga0.6Fe1.4O3:Mg thin films},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS},
  year = {2013},
  volume = {113},
  number = {21},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4808349}
}
Borowiak, A.S., Niu, G., Pillard, V., Agnus, G., Lecoeur, P., Albertini, D., Baboux, N., Gautier, B. and Vilquin, B. Pulsed laser deposition of epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O-3 films on silicon substrates 2012 THIN SOLID FILMS
Vol. 520(14, SI), pp. 4604-4607 
article DOI  
Abstract: We report on the epitaxial growth and electrical properties of
Pb0.52Zr0.48TiO3 (PZT) thin films deposited by Pulsed Laser Deposition
(PLD) on SrTiO3 (STO)-buffered Si(001). Previously to PZT growth, 40
nm-thick (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSMO) layer was deposited to serve as electrical
bottom electrode. The 200 nm-thick PZT film epitaxy was optimized by PLD
on STO-buffered Si(001).
The high contrast of stable artificially poled ferroelectric surfaces
evidences the good ferroelectric properties of the PZT thin film. The
structural as well as the physical properties of the
PZT/LSMO/STO/Si(001) structure prove that very good quality layers have
been obtained for films grown on silicon substrate. (C) 2011 Elsevier
B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Borowiak2012,
  author = {Borowiak, A. S. and Niu, G. and Pillard, V. and Agnus, G. and Lecoeur, Ph. and Albertini, D. and Baboux, N. and Gautier, B. and Vilquin, B.},
  title = {Pulsed laser deposition of epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O-3 films on silicon substrates},
  journal = {THIN SOLID FILMS},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {520},
  number = {14, SI},
  pages = {4604-4607},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2011.10.139}
}
Bousquet, M., Duclere, J.R., Gautier, B., Boulle, A., Wu, A., Deputier, S., Fasquelle, D., Remondiere, F., Albertini, D., Champeaux, C., Marchet, P., Guilloux-Viry, M. and Vilarinho, P. Electrical properties of (110) epitaxial lead-free ferroelectric Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Macroscopic and nanoscale data 2012 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
Vol. 111(10) 
article DOI  
Abstract: We report the electrical properties, measured both at the macroscopic
and nanometric scales, of epitaxial (110)-Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) thin
films grown on (110)Pt/(110)SrTiO3 by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The
influence of the A-site composition (Na and/or Bi excess) on both the
structural/microstructural characteristics and the electrical properties
is discussed. Whatever the composition of the NBT target, the final
layers are systematically epitaxially grown, with NBT crystallites
mainly (110)-oriented, and as well (100)-oriented for some minor
proportion. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images reveal the coexistence
of two kinds of grains presenting different shapes: namely flat and
elongated grains, corresponding to (100)- and (110)-oriented NBT
crystallites, respectively. The macroscopic ferroelectric properties
were measured at room temperature. A rather well-defined shape of the
hysteresis loops was obtained: the incorporation of a Bi excess in the
target clearly improves the saturation of the loops. The ferroelectric
performances are a remanent polarization (P-r) value, ranging from 7 to
14 mu C/cm(2), associated with a coercive field (E-c) in the range 68-85
kV/cm. In addition, at 10(5) Hz, the relative permittivity was about
epsilon(r)similar to 255-410 and the dielectric losses (tan delta) were
similar to 67%. Finally, the electrical properties at the local
scale were investigated by coupling piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM)
and tunneling AFM (TUNA) measurements. The collected data reveal that
the two types of grains behave differently. The PFM amplitude signal of
(110)-oriented grains is very contrasted and such grains are often
divided in ferroelectric bi-domains of nanometric sizes, whereas the
response of (100)-oriented grains is less contrasted and more
homogeneous. The interpretation of the PFM signal is provided. The
piezoloop recorded on a (110)NBT grain is strongly distorted and shifted
along the vertical axis, in agreement with the vertical drift observed
for macroscopic ferroelectric data. Finally, TUNA data clearly indicate
that flat grains are leakier than elongated grains, highlighting the
anisotropy of the electrical properties at the local scale. (C) 2012
American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4716177]
BibTeX:
@article{Bousquet2012,
  author = {Bousquet, M. and Duclere, J. -R. and Gautier, B. and Boulle, A. and Wu, A. and Deputier, S. and Fasquelle, D. and Remondiere, F. and Albertini, D. and Champeaux, C. and Marchet, P. and Guilloux-Viry, M. and Vilarinho, P.},
  title = {Electrical properties of (110) epitaxial lead-free ferroelectric Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition: Macroscopic and nanoscale data},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {111},
  number = {10},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4716177}
}
Arinero, R., Hourani, W., Touboul, A.D., Gautier, B., Ramonda, M., Albertini, D., Militaru, L., Gonzalez-Velo, Y., Guasch, C. and Saigne, F. Toward a better understanding of the nanoscale degradation mechanisms of ultra-thin Si0(2)/Si films: Investigation of the best experimental conditions with a conductive-atomic force microscope 2011 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
Vol. 110(1) 
article DOI  
Abstract: We report, in this paper, investigations on the experimental conditions
to be adopted to improve the reproducibility and the stability of
conductive-atomic force microscopy experiments performed on ultra-thin
oxide films. In particular, we demonstrate the key role of the water
film layer which can disturb the acquisition of ramp voltage stresses
and, in fine, lead to an important tip oxidation. Starting from these
results, Weibull statistical analyses of stress-induced electrical
degradation were carried out under vacuum on SiO2/Si films. We studied
the influence of different parameters like the oxide thickness, the
substrate doping type and doping level. We also observed important
morphological effects, more or less visible, according to the type of
tip and the oxide thickness. Those effects can be attributed, on one
hand, to different temperature rise at the tip/oxide interface and, on
the other hand, to different energy dissipated through the oxide film.
(C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3603037]
BibTeX:
@article{Arinero2011,
  author = {Arinero, R. and Hourani, W. and Touboul, A. D. and Gautier, B. and Ramonda, M. and Albertini, D. and Militaru, L. and Gonzalez-Velo, Y. and Guasch, C. and Saigne, F.},
  title = {Toward a better understanding of the nanoscale degradation mechanisms of ultra-thin Si0(2)/Si films: Investigation of the best experimental conditions with a conductive-atomic force microscope},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {110},
  number = {1},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3603037}
}
Hourani, W., Gautier, B., Militaru, L., Albertini, D., Descamps-Mandine, A. and Arinero, R. Influence of the surrounding ambient on the reliability of the electrical characterization of thin oxide layers using an atomic force microscope 2011 MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY
Vol. 51(12), pp. 2097-2101 
article DOI  
Abstract: Physical and electrical properties of thin oxide films have been studied
using the atomic force microscope (AFM). Experiments have been done in
three different surroundings: in air and in secondary vacuum (similar to
10(-6) mbar) without and with a heating stage in order to study the
influence of the surrounding ambient on the reliability of the
electrical characterization of thin oxide films. It is shown that by
applying a positive voltage at the AFM tip and in the presence of a
water layer at the oxide's surface in air ambient, the behavior of the
oxide film is very different compared to the same experiment conducted
in secondary vacuum. It is thought that in air, H+ ions are injected
through the oxide, forming attached hydrogen defects in it. These
electrically active defects form a path in the oxide between the tip and
the substrate facilitating the passage of charges through the oxide,
which can be described by a Trap Assisted Tunneling (TAT) mechanism. The
results show that working in vacuum with a heating stage is an important
condition for the reliability of the characterization of oxides since
the breakdown phenomenon is largely reduced due to the absence of the
water layer. Moreover, the creation of hillocks (protrusions appearing
on the surface after the electrical stress) on the oxide's surface is
decreased under vacuum. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier
Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Hourani2011,
  author = {Hourani, W. and Gautier, B. and Militaru, L. and Albertini, D. and Descamps-Mandine, A. and Arinero, R.},
  title = {Influence of the surrounding ambient on the reliability of the electrical characterization of thin oxide layers using an atomic force microscope},
  journal = {MICROELECTRONICS RELIABILITY},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {51},
  number = {12},
  pages = {2097-2101},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microrel.2011.07.035}
}
Hourani, W., Gautier, B., Militaru, L., Albertini, D. and Descamps-Mandine, A. Study of the physical and electrical degradation of thin oxide films by atomic force microscope 2011 JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B
Vol. 29(1) 
article DOI  
Abstract: The hillocks created by the application of ramped voltage stress on thin
oxide films have been imaged using different modes of the atomic force
microscope (AFM) and using conductive or insulating tips, leading to the
conclusion that these anomalous hillocks correspond to real (physical)
modification of the oxide's surface. Electric force microscopy has also
been used, which shows that negative charges are trapped in the oxide
layer after the ramps and contribute to the contrast of AFM images
although their role may not be predominant. Comparisons between ramps
operated in air and in dry atmosphere or vacuum emphasize the role of
the water layer covering the sample in the apparition of the hillock.
The authors' results tend to accredit that the formation of the hillock
is a complex phenomenon involving a chemical (oxidation), electrical
(trapped charges), and physical (electrothermal effect) mechanisms. (c)
2011 American Vacuum Society. [DOI: 10.1116/1.3521474]
BibTeX:
@article{Hourani2011a,
  author = {Hourani, Wael and Gautier, Brice and Militaru, Liviu and Albertini, David and Descamps-Mandine, Armel},
  title = {Study of the physical and electrical degradation of thin oxide films by atomic force microscope},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF VACUUM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY B},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {29},
  number = {1},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1116/1.3521474}
}
Barrett, N., Rault, J., Krug, I., Vilquin, B., Niu, G., Gautier, B., Albertini, D., Lecoeur, P. and Renault, O. Influence of the ferroelectric polarization on the electronic structure of BaTiO3 thin films 2010 SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS
Vol. 42(12-13), pp. 1690-1694 
article DOI  
Abstract: Micron scale ferroelectric (FE) domains have been written into a
20-nm-thick epitaxial thin film of BaTiO3 (001) [BTO(001)] on a
Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrate using a piezoforce microscope (PFM). The
domain-dependent electronic structure has been studied using fully
energy-filtered photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) and synchrotron
radiation. Shifts, induced by FE polarization, of up to 300 meV were
observed in the work function of the sample. The surface is Ba-O
terminated. Polarization-induced distortion of the electronic structure
was observed in the valence band and on the Ba 3d, Ti 2p and O 1s core
levels of BTO. Polarization-dependent surface adsorption was observed. A
simple electrostatic model based on net surface charge is not sufficient
to explain the observed modifications in the electronic levels.
Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
BibTeX:
@article{Barrett2010,
  author = {Barrett, N. and Rault, J. and Krug, I. and Vilquin, B. and Niu, G. and Gautier, B. and Albertini, D. and Lecoeur, P. and Renault, O.},
  title = {Influence of the ferroelectric polarization on the electronic structure of BaTiO3 thin films},
  journal = {SURFACE AND INTERFACE ANALYSIS},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {42},
  number = {12-13},
  pages = {1690-1694},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/sia.3369}
}
Bousquet, M., Duclere, J.R., Champeaux, C., Boulle, A., Marchet, P., Catherinot, A., Wu, A., Vilarinho, P.M., Deputier, S., Guilloux-Viry, M., Crunteanu, A., Gautier, B., Albertini, D. and Bachelet, C. Macroscopic and nanoscale electrical properties of pulsed laser deposited (100) epitaxial lead-free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 thin films 2010 JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
Vol. 107(3) 
article DOI  
Abstract: Epitaxial Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 thin films presenting various thicknesses were
grown by pulsed laser deposition on epitaxial (100) platinum bottom
layers supported by (100)MgO single crystal substrates. X-ray
diffraction data indicated that all Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 layers are
single-phased and that (100)-oriented Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 (NBT) crystallites
are extremely predominant. The thinner films (respectively 230 and 400
nm) display a quasiunique (100) orientation (close to 100, whereas
for the thickest film (610 nm), the proportion of (100)-oriented
Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 crystallites decreases to 85.50 vol %. Such variation is
supposed to result from the degree of misorientation of the Pt layer.
Further x-ray investigations revealed a pronounced asymmetry of the
(100)NBT reflection. Such asymmetry is also observed in the (310)NBT
reciprocal space maps. The analysis of the asymmetrical broadening of
the reciprocal lattice point suggests a variation in the chemical
composition across the samples thickness, in agreement with comparative
Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) data. In addition, x-ray
diffraction Phi-scans data indicate the systematic epitaxial growth of
the (100)-oriented crystallites. The observation of the microstructure
of Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 films completely corroborates the x-ray diffraction
information. Whereas the two thinnest films are characterized by the
presence of only one type of grains: i.e., very fine and spherical
grains (around 50-100 nm in size), the thickest film is characterized by
the presence of two types of grains: the aforementioned one and some
elongated and ``factory roof''-like grains. Thus, we unambiguously
attribute that the spherical grains correspond to (100)-oriented
crystallites, whereas the ``factory roof''-like grains are
(110)-oriented. The room temperature macroscopic ferroelectric
properties were measured only for the thickest film. A rather
well-defined shape of the polarization-electric (P-E) field hysteresis
loops was recorded, and a vertical drift of the loops was systematically
observed. Recentering the hysteresis loops leads to a P-r value of 12.6
mu C/cm(2), associated to a coercive field of about 94 kV/cm. This P-E
vertical drift originates from the very asymmetric conduction of the
Pt/NBT/Pt capacitors at different polarities, as testified by the
current density-electric field curves. Such drift can be caused by the
existence of different barrier heights at the bottom and top
Pt/Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 interfaces. In addition, based on the combined RBS and
x-ray data, we suggest that the chemical composition variation across
the layer also impacts on the polarization vertical drift. Finally, the
nanoscale electrical properties of the thinnest film have been
characterized by both tunneling atomic force microscopy (TUNA) and
piezoforce microscopy (PFM). The TUNA data revealed that leakage
currents cannot be noticeably detected below 8 or 10 V, in negative or
positive biases, respectively. The PFM data showed that most of the
grains seem to be constituted of single ferroelectric domains. In
addition, the recorded d(33) piezoloops are strongly distorted, and
systematically remain in the vertical positive side, in agreement with
the vertical drift observed for the macroscopic ferroelectric data.
The presence of self-polarization within our thinnest film is finally
invoked, and supported b some piezohistogram, in order to justify the
distorted shape of the loops as well as the supplementary horizontal
shift.
BibTeX:
@article{Bousquet2010,
  author = {Bousquet, M. and Duclere, J. -R. and Champeaux, C. and Boulle, A. and Marchet, P. and Catherinot, A. and Wu, A. and Vilarinho, P. M. and Deputier, S. and Guilloux-Viry, M. and Crunteanu, A. and Gautier, B. and Albertini, D. and Bachelet, C.},
  title = {Macroscopic and nanoscale electrical properties of pulsed laser deposited (100) epitaxial lead-free Na0.5Bi0.5TiO3 thin films},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {107},
  number = {3},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3290956}
}
Dehlinger, A.S., Le Berre, M., Canut, B., Chatelon, J.P., Albertini, D., Perrot, S., Givord, D. and Rousseau, J.J. Microstructural and magnetic properties of thick (>= 10 mu m) magnetron sputtered barium ferrite films 2010 JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS
Vol. 322(21), pp. 3293-3297 
article DOI  
Abstract: This work focuses on the properties of 1015 mu m thick barium M-type
hexaferrite (BaFe12O19 or BaM) films deposited by non-reactive RF
magnetron sputtering on alumina substrates. High deposition rates were
achieved through deposition at room temperature and operation at an RF
power of 100 W. By varying sputtering gas pressure, the dc magnetic
properties were correlated with structural, morphological and
compositional properties obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic
force microscopy (AFM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS),
respectively. A deposition pressure of P=3 Pa enables one to reach the
best compromise between high deposition rate (0.75 mu m/h) and adequate
crystallographic, stoichiometric and magnetostatic properties. Finally
the gyromagnetic properties at high frequency were assessed through the
characterization of coplanar isolator up to 60 GHz. As such, hexaferrite
films prepared using this technique may offer opportunities for the next
generation of self-biased planar microwave devices. (C) 2010 Elsevier
B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Dehlinger2010,
  author = {Dehlinger, A. S. and Le Berre, M. and Canut, B. and Chatelon, J. P. and Albertini, D. and Perrot, S. and Givord, D. and Rousseau, J. J.},
  title = {Microstructural and magnetic properties of thick (>= 10 mu m) magnetron sputtered barium ferrite films},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF MAGNETISM AND MAGNETIC MATERIALS},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {322},
  number = {21},
  pages = {3293-3297},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmmm.2010.06.011}
}
Ligor, O., Gautier, B., Descamps-Mandine, A., Albertini, D., Baboux, N. and Militaru, L. Interpretation of scanning capacitance microscopy for thin oxides characterization 2009 THIN SOLID FILMS
Vol. 517(24), pp. 6721-6725 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this paper, the reliability of the characterization of thin oxides at
the nanoscale using Scanning Capacitance Spectroscopy (SCS) is
addressed. 5 nm thick thermal silicon dioxide layers are probed by SCS
and compared to capacitance versus voltage (C-V)curves obtained with a
classical (''macroscopic'') bench using large (e.g. 100 mu m x 100
mu m) electrodes. The detrimental influence of the laser used for the
measurement of the deflection of the AFM cantilever is pointed out. It
is shown that SCS is not able to provide the correct shape of the dC/dV
versus voltage curve, compared to macroscopic C-V curves. In particular,
a hysteretic behaviour and an increase of the signal in the inversion
region are measured by SCS whereas they are not present in macroscopic
C-V curves. We show that this can be explained by a bad electrical
contact (presence of contaminants and/or charges) between the Atomic
Force Microscope's tip and the oxide. Macroscopic C-V curves obtained
directly with a large metallic tip positioned on the oxide layer show
the same features as SCS, while SCS operated on an electrode cut from an
electrode of macroscopic size used for macroscopic C-V curves leads to
the correct shape. This shows that SCS won't be fully comparable to
macroscopic measurements unless the influence of the contact between the
AFM tip and the sample is taken into account. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All
rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Ligor2009,
  author = {Ligor, O. and Gautier, B. and Descamps-Mandine, A. and Albertini, D. and Baboux, N. and Militaru, L.},
  title = {Interpretation of scanning capacitance microscopy for thin oxides characterization},
  journal = {THIN SOLID FILMS},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {517},
  number = {24},
  pages = {6721-6725},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2009.05.026}
}
Ligor, O., Gautier, B., Descamps, A., Albertini, D., Militaru, L. and Baboux, N. Nanoscale Characterization Of Ultra-Thin Dielectrics Using Scanning Capacitance Microscopy 2009
Vol. 1173FRONTIERS OF CHARACTERIZATION AND METROLOGY FOR NANOELECTRONICS: 2009, pp. 193-197 
inproceedings  
Abstract: In this communication, Scanning Capacitance Spectroscopy (SCS) is used
in order to characterize the electrical properties of thin dielectrics.
The aim is to determine the best experimental conditions that lead to a
reliable interpretation of SCS and to the best signal to noise ratio,
with the objective of measuring the characteristics of the oxide
(charges in the oxide, flat band voltage...). Comparisons are made with
macroscopic C-V curves obtained with an impedance analyzer to test the
reliability of the results obtained by SCS. In particular, we study the
role of the AFM laser and tip-sample contact on the shape of the SCS
(width, additional peaks...) and show that they introduce parasitic
features which are not present in macroscopic C-V curves. This leads to
a difficult interpretation of SCS results, especially in the case where
characteristic parameters of the oxide are to be extracted from SCS
analysis.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ligor2009a,
  author = {Ligor, O. and Gautier, B. and Descamps, A. and Albertini, D. and Militaru, L. and Baboux, N.},
  title = {Nanoscale Characterization Of Ultra-Thin Dielectrics Using Scanning Capacitance Microscopy},
  booktitle = {FRONTIERS OF CHARACTERIZATION AND METROLOGY FOR NANOELECTRONICS: 2009},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {1173},
  pages = {193-197},
  note = {International Conference on Frontiers of Characterization and Metrology for Nanoelectronics, Albany, NY, MAY 11-15, 2009}
}
Liu, C.-E., Richard-Plouet, M., Besland, M.-P., Albertini, D., Estournes, C. and Brohan, L. Dip-coated La2Li2O7 as a buffer layer for growth of Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 films with enhanced (011) orientation 2009 JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY
Vol. 29(10), pp. 1977-1985 
article DOI  
Abstract: Thin-films of La2Ti2O7 were obtained by dip-coating process using a
precursor salt in nitric acid solution. The effects of solution
concentration, withdrawal speed, post-annealing duration and temperature
were investigated both on grain size and orientation of the La2Ti2O7
thin layers. In addition, a target with the required stoichiometry for
PVD deposition of La-substituted Bi4Ti3O12 (BLT) was successfully
sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 750 degrees C. Finally (0 1
1)-oriented BLT ferroelectric films have been grown by RF sputtering on
(1 1 0)-oriented La2Ti2O7 polycrystalline thin-film. A preferential
orientation of BLT thin films has been obtained after annealing at a
temperature lower than 650 degrees C. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Liu2009,
  author = {Liu, Chia-Erh and Richard-Plouet, Mireille and Besland, Marie-Paule and Albertini, David and Estournes, Claude and Brohan, Luc},
  title = {Dip-coated La2Li2O7 as a buffer layer for growth of Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 films with enhanced (011) orientation},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {29},
  number = {10},
  pages = {1977-1985},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2008.12.003}
}
Pelloquin, S., Becerra, L., Saint-Girons, G., Plossu, C., Baboux, N., Albertini, D., Grenet, G. and Hollinger, G. Molecular beam deposition of LaAlO3 on silicon for sub-22 nm CMOS technological nodes: Towards a perfect control of the oxide/silicon heterointerface 2009 MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING
Vol. 86(7-9), pp. 1686-1688 
article DOI  
Abstract: This work reports on the development of thin amorphous LaAlO3 (LAO)
layers on Si(001) for their integration as gate oxide in sub-22 nm CMOS
technologies. The crucial influence of the Si surface preparation is
highlighted and an optimized surface preparation procedure is proposed.
An unexpected interface reaction during Rapid Thermal Annealing is also
evidenced, and an explanation attempt of the origin of this reaction,
involving surface contaminants, is proposed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All
rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Pelloquin2009,
  author = {Pelloquin, S. and Becerra, L. and Saint-Girons, G. and Plossu, C. and Baboux, N. and Albertini, D. and Grenet, G. and Hollinger, G.},
  title = {Molecular beam deposition of LaAlO3 on silicon for sub-22 nm CMOS technological nodes: Towards a perfect control of the oxide/silicon heterointerface},
  journal = {MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {86},
  number = {7-9},
  pages = {1686-1688},
  note = {16th Biennial Conference on Insulating Films on Semiconductors, Cambridge Univ, Clare Coll, Cambridge, ENGLAND, JUN 28-JUL 07, 2009},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mee.2009.03.111}
}
Petit, D., Gautier, B., Albertini, D., Defaÿ, E., Verdier, J., Barbier, D. and Carpentier, J. Determination of the temperature coefficient piezoelectric constant TCe 33 to improve thermal 1D acoustic tool for BAW resonator design 2009 2009 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, pp. 2016-2019  inproceedings DOI  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Petit2009,
  author = {Petit, D and Gautier, B and Albertini, D and Defaÿ, E and Verdier, J and Barbier, D and Carpentier, JF},
  title = {Determination of the temperature coefficient piezoelectric constant TCe 33 to improve thermal 1D acoustic tool for BAW resonator design},
  booktitle = {2009 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {2016--2019},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1109/ULTSYM.2009.0497}
}
Pokrop, R., Kulszewicz-Bajer, I., Wielgus, I., Zagorska, M., Albertini, D., Lefrant, S., Louarn, G. and Pron, A. Electrochemical and Raman spectroelectrochemical investigation of single-wall carbon nanotubes-polythiophene hybrid materials 2009 SYNTHETIC METALS
Vol. 159(9-10, SI), pp. 919-924 
article DOI  
Abstract: Two types of polythiophene-single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)
composites are comparatively studied. Composites of the first type
consisted of nonmodified SWCNTs and nonmodified regioregular
poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) or
poly(dioctylterthiophenes) (PDOTT). Composites of the second type
(Molecular composites) were obtained by grafting carboxylic acid
functionalized poly(alkylthiophene)s on amine functionalized SWCNTs. In
AFM images of the composites of nonfunctionalized components, individual
carbon nanotubes can be easily distinguished, which are well dispersed
in the polymer matrix showing fibrilar morphology. Cyclic voltammetry
and Raman spectroelectrochemical experiments unequivocally show that all
characteristic redox and spectroscopic features of both SWCTs and the
polymer are retained in the composite material. Moreover the percolating
network of SWCTs facilitates the electrochemical doping of the polymeric
component. These new, solution processible materials are good candidates
for printable contact electrodes in organic electronics. Molecular
composites obtained by grafting show a different morphology. It is
characterized by a network of fibers of diameters ranging from few
dozens to few hundreds nm. Individual composite components cannot be
distinguished which is an obvious consequence of the grafting reaction.
Combined voltammetric and Raman spectroelectrochemical studies show that
the grafting reaction lowers the electrochemical activity of the polymer
component and the resulting maximum doping level is, in this case, lower
than that found in composites of nonmodified components. (C) 2009
Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Pokrop2009,
  author = {Pokrop, Rafal and Kulszewicz-Bajer, Irena and Wielgus, Ireneusz and Zagorska, Malgorzata and Albertini, David and Lefrant, Serge and Louarn, Guy and Pron, Adam},
  title = {Electrochemical and Raman spectroelectrochemical investigation of single-wall carbon nanotubes-polythiophene hybrid materials},
  journal = {SYNTHETIC METALS},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {159},
  number = {9-10, SI},
  pages = {919-924},
  note = {International Conference on Control of Super-Hierarchical Structures and Innovative Functions of Next Generation Conjugated Polymers, Hyogo, JAPAN, OCT 21-23, 2008},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.synthmet.2009.01.056}
}
Zhang, W., Dubois, M., Guerin, K., Bonnet, P., Petit, E., Delpuech, N., Albertini, D., Masin, F. and Hamwi, A. Effect of graphitization on fluorination of carbon nanocones and nanodiscs 2009 CARBON
Vol. 47(12), pp. 2763-2775 
article DOI  
Abstract: The reactivity with pure fluorine gas of a mixture of carbon nanodiscs
and nanocones was investigated. The starting materials were the
as-prepared mixture, which results from cracking of heavy oils, and the
sample post-treated at 2700 degrees C in argon atmosphere in order to
increase the graphitization degree. The effect of this graphitization on
the resulting fluorinated carbons was highlighted in terms of structural
and morphological features using C-13 and F-19 solid-state nuclear
magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, Raman spectroscopy,
atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. These
characterizations were used to explain the electrochemical properties of
these materials when used as an electrode in a primary lithium battery.
(C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Zhang2009,
  author = {Zhang, W. and Dubois, M. and Guerin, K. and Bonnet, P. and Petit, E. and Delpuech, N. and Albertini, D. and Masin, F. and Hamwi, A.},
  title = {Effect of graphitization on fluorination of carbon nanocones and nanodiscs},
  journal = {CARBON},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {47},
  number = {12},
  pages = {2763-2775},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2009.05.035}
}
Liu, C.E., Richard-Plouet, M., Albertini, D., Besland, M.P. and Brohan, L. Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 films on La2Ti2O7 thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition - art. no. 012014 2008
Vol. 94INTERFACIAL NANOSTRUCTURES IN CERAMICS: A MULTISCALE APPROACH, pp. 12014 
inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: We report the synthetic and physical procedures for obtaining the
Lanthanum-substituted Bi4Ti3O12 (BLT) ferroelectric films,
Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12, with its polarisation axis (a) oriented
perpendicular to the surface of the electrode by employing partially
oriented (001) polycrystalline thin films of La2Ti2O7 (LTO) as a buffer
onto Si-wafers. The LTO thin film was achieved by dip coating and
annealing at high temperatures while the BLT film was deposited using RF
magnetron sputtering and annealing at a temperature as low as 650
degrees C. Furthermore, the dependence of the thickness, grain size and
orientation of the LTO films on the withdrawal speed of the dip-coating
and annealing temperature is reported.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Liu2008,
  author = {Liu, C. E. and Richard-Plouet, M. and Albertini, D. and Besland, M. P. and Brohan, L.},
  title = {Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 films on La2Ti2O7 thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition - art. no. 012014},
  booktitle = {INTERFACIAL NANOSTRUCTURES IN CERAMICS: A MULTISCALE APPROACH},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {94},
  pages = {12014},
  note = {Symposium on Interfacial Nanostructures in Ceramics held at the 2007 E-MRS Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, FRANCE, MAY 28-JUN 01, 2007},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/94/1/012014}
}
Besland, M.P., Borderon, C., Cavellier, M., Le Tacon, S., Richard-Plouet, M., Albertini, D., Averty, D., Tessier, P.Y., Gundel, H.W., Brohan, L. and Djouadi, M.A. Two step reactive magnetron sputtering of BLT thin films 2007 INTEGRATED FERROELECTRICS
Vol. 94, pp. 94-104 
article DOI  
Abstract: Well crystallized BLT thin films were deposited by RF magnetron
sputtering using a home made target of Aurivillius phase
Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 (BLT0.75). RF sputtering experiments were performed
at room temperature with an argon/oxygen mixture, in a pressure range of
20-50 mTorr. Optimisation of the plasma parameters, namely deposition
pressure, RF power and oxygen content in the gas phase, allows obtaining
BLT films with a chemical composition close to Bi-3,25La0.75Ti3O12.
After ex-situ annealing under oxygen atmosphere at 650 degrees C, BLT
deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si (multilayer) substrates exhibits well
crystallized films with granular morphology. A two step deposition
process appeared to be necessary in order to reach satisfying dielectric
properties. The effect of the plasma parameters on the chemical
composition and electrical properties are presented and discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{Besland2007,
  author = {Besland, M. P. and Borderon, C. and Cavellier, M. and Le Tacon, S. and Richard-Plouet, M. and Albertini, D. and Averty, D. and Tessier, P. Y. and Gundel, H. W. and Brohan, L. and Djouadi, M. A.},
  title = {Two step reactive magnetron sputtering of BLT thin films},
  journal = {INTEGRATED FERROELECTRICS},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {94},
  pages = {94-104},
  note = {19th International Symposium on Integrated Ferroelectrics, Natl Sch Elect & Telecoms, Bordeaux, FRANCE, MAY 08-AUG 12, 2007},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1080/10584580701756300}
}
Bonnet, P., Albertini, D., Bizot, H., Bernard, A. and Chauvet, O. Amylose/SWNT composites: From solution to film - Synthesis, characterization and properties 2007 COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Vol. 67(5), pp. 817-821 
article DOI  
Abstract: Amylose/single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) composites or complexes
have been prepared in aqueous solutions and deposited as films. The
complexes are obtained by adding hydroxypropylated amylose (AmH) to a
surfactant stabilized individual SWNT aqueous dispersion. The dispersion
and the possible aggregation of SWNT are probed by optical spectroscopic
means and by AFM imaging. AmH allows to avoid aggregation and to
disperse the SWNT. The structure of the AmH/SWNT complex is not fully
elucidated but it involves the surfactant. This complex formation is
reversible by enzymatic hydrolysis. At high AmH content, composite films
may be obtained. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Bonnet2007,
  author = {Bonnet, P. and Albertini, D. and Bizot, H. and Bernard, A. and Chauvet, O.},
  title = {Amylose/SWNT composites: From solution to film - Synthesis, characterization and properties},
  journal = {COMPOSITES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {67},
  number = {5},
  pages = {817-821},
  note = {International Conference on Carbon Nanotube (CNT) - Polymer Composites, Univ Cambridge, Cambridge, ENGLAND, SEP, 2005},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2006.01.037}
}
Hocevar, M., Regreny, P., Descamps, A., Albertini, D., Saint-Girons, G., Souifi, A. and Gendry, M. InAs nanocrystals on SiO2/Si by molecular beam epitaxy for memory applications 2007 APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS
Vol. 91(13) 
article DOI  
Abstract: We studied a memory structure based on InAs nanocrystals grown by
molecular beam epitaxy directly on thermal SiO2 on silicon. Both
nanocrystal diameter and density can be controlled by growth parameters.
Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows high crystallinity and
low size dispersion. In an electrical test structure with a 3.5 nm
tunnel oxide, we observed that 80% of the initial injected electrons
remain stored in the InAs nanocrystals after 3 months and that the
retention time for electrons in InAs nanocrystals is four orders of
magnitude higher than in silicon nanocrystals. (C) 2007 American
Institute of Physics.
BibTeX:
@article{Hocevar2007,
  author = {Hocevar, Moira and Regreny, Philippe and Descamps, Armel and Albertini, David and Saint-Girons, Guillaume and Souifi, Abdelkader and Gendry, Michel},
  title = {InAs nanocrystals on SiO2/Si by molecular beam epitaxy for memory applications},
  journal = {APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {91},
  number = {13},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2793694}
}
Fritsch, E., Gaillou, E., Rondeau, B., Barreau, A., Albertini, D. and Ostroumov, M. The nanostructure of fire opal 2006 JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS
Vol. 352(38-39), pp. 3957-3960 
article DOI  
Abstract: Fire opal, a transparent orange variety of opal, which does not diffract
visible light, is built from the random accumulation of granular
particles of hydrated silica, about 20 nm in size. This opal variety
does not present the structure most commonly associated with precious
opal, that is, a regular three-dimensional network of amorphous silica
spheres about 200 nm in diameter. About 60 samples (from Mexico, Brazil,
Kazakhstan, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Slovakia and USA) were documented using
scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. This work demonstrates
that nanograins are the elementary building blocks of this variety of
opal. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Fritsch2006,
  author = {Fritsch, E. and Gaillou, E. and Rondeau, B. and Barreau, A. and Albertini, D. and Ostroumov, M.},
  title = {The nanostructure of fire opal},
  journal = {JOURNAL OF NON-CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {352},
  number = {38-39},
  pages = {3957-3960},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnoncrysol.2006.08.005}
}
Bonnet, P., Albertini, D., Godon, C., Paris, M., Bizot, H., Davy, J., Buleon, A. and Chauvet, O. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes/amylose composites 2004
Vol. 723ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF SYNTHETIC NANOSTRUCTURES, pp. 465-468 
inproceedings  
Abstract: Wrapping single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) by an helical polymer may
be an interesting way to solubilize them in water or organic solvents or
to prepare biocomposites with multifunctionnal properties. Here we
report the synthesis in aqueous solution of amylose/SWNT composites
where amylose is a biological polymer. Upon reacting amylose with SWNT,
a stable suspension is formed which is probed by optical absorption and
Raman spectroscopies. While nicely resolved absorption spectra suggest
that isolation of SWNTs likely related to a complex formation is
achieved in the suspension, this is not confirmed by the fluorescence
behaviour.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bonnet2004,
  author = {Bonnet, P and Albertini, D and Godon, C and Paris, M and Bizot, H and Davy, J and Buleon, A and Chauvet, O},
  title = {Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes/amylose composites},
  booktitle = {ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF SYNTHETIC NANOSTRUCTURES},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {723},
  pages = {465-468},
  note = {18th International Winterschool/Euroconference on Electronic Properties of Novel Materials, Kirchberg, AUSTRIA, MAR 06-JUN 13, 2004}
}
Barreau, N., Marsillac, S., Albertini, D. and Bernede, J. Structural, optical and electrical properties of beta-In2S3-3xO3x thin films obtained by PVD 2002 THIN SOLID FILMS
Vol. 403, pp. 331-334 
article DOI  
Abstract: b-In2S3-3xO3X thin films have been synthesized following a dry physical
process on glass substrates. The highest temperature used during the
elaboration of the films is 473 K. The films have been structurally and
optically characterized by X-ray diffraction, electronic microprobe
analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electronic
microscopy and atomic force microscopy. They crystallize in the
tetragonal beta-In2S3 structure. Their optical band gap varies from 2.1
eV, when they are pure beta-In2S3, to 2.9 eV when they contain 8.5 at.%
of oxygen. The electrical properties of the thin films have also been
determined, they have n-type electrical conductivity of approximately
10(-3) S(.)cm(-1). All these properties make beta-In2S3-3xO3x thin films
good candidates to substitute CBD-CdS as buffer layer in CIGS-based
solar cells. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
BibTeX:
@article{Barreau2002,
  author = {Barreau, N and Marsillac, S and Albertini, D and Bernede, JC},
  title = {Structural, optical and electrical properties of beta-In2S3-3xO3x thin films obtained by PVD},
  journal = {THIN SOLID FILMS},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {403},
  pages = {331-334},
  note = {E-MRS 2001 Spring Meeting, STRASBOURG, FRANCE, JUN 05-08, 2001},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(01)01512-7}
}
Marcoux, P., Schreiber, J., Batail, P., Lefrant, S., Renouard, J., Jacob, G., Albertini, D. and Mevellec, J. A spectroscopic study of the fluorination and defluorination reactions on single-walled carbon nanotubes 2002 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS
Vol. 4(11), pp. 2278-2285 
article DOI  
Abstract: The manipulation of isolated single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs),
rather than bundles, has led to active research in the field of the
functionalisation of such carbon compounds. Different ways exist today
to obtain some new soluble macromolecules from SWNTs. Here we focus on
the fluorination functionalisation. As the solubility properties depend
essentially on the degree of functionalisation, it is important to
develop reliable and simple methods to quantify this. The CnF
stoichiometry of three different fluorinated SWNTs samples are
determined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Then the
evolution of the Raman spectra with the degree of fluorination of these
samples is discussed. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) study highlights
the good solvation properties of the most fluorinated sample with a
majority of isolated nanotubes being observed. Then we take advantage of
these good solvation properties, combined with the possibility of
recovering the pristine non-fluorinated nanotubes, to carry out surface
enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) studies of well-dispersed SWNTs.
These studies put in evidence the bundle effect, which is due to the
agglomeration of SWNTs into bundles. This effect can be readily observed
by Raman spectroscopy.
BibTeX:
@article{Marcoux2002,
  author = {Marcoux, PR and Schreiber, J and Batail, P and Lefrant, S and Renouard, J and Jacob, G and Albertini, D and Mevellec, JY},
  title = {A spectroscopic study of the fluorination and defluorination reactions on single-walled carbon nanotubes},
  journal = {PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {4},
  number = {11},
  pages = {2278-2285},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1039/b109770a}
}
Schreiber, J., Marcoux, P., Albertini, D., Chauvet, O. and Lefrant, S. Surface enhanced Raman scattering on fluorinated single-wall carbon nanotubes 2002
Vol. 633STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR NANOSTRUCTURES, pp. 298-301 
inproceedings  
Abstract: In the following paper we will describe a method to produce substrates
with thin films of silver or gold which are particularly active for
Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). These substrates are used to
perform a new deposition process of reversibly functionalized SWNTs
which permits to obtain isolated SWNTs on SERS surfaces. These studies
put in evidence the bundle effect, which is due to agglomeration of
SWNTs into bundles.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Schreiber2002,
  author = {Schreiber, J and Marcoux, PR and Albertini, D and Chauvet, O and Lefrant, S},
  title = {Surface enhanced Raman scattering on fluorinated single-wall carbon nanotubes},
  booktitle = {STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF MOLECULAR NANOSTRUCTURES},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {633},
  pages = {298-301},
  note = {16th International Winterschool on Electronic Properties of Novel Materials, KIRCHBERG, AUSTRIA, MAR 02-09, 2002}
}
Albertini, D., Thibaudau, F., Masson, L. and Salvan, F. Nucleation behaviour during silicon UHV-CVD on Si(111)7 x 7 1998 SURFACE SCIENCE
Vol. 400(1-3), pp. 109-115 
article DOI  
Abstract: We report a UH V-CVD homoepitaxy study on the Si(111)7 x 7 surface
investigated with Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM). We have
investigated the two-dimensional island density in the temperature range
from 450 to 550 degrees C and silane pressure range from to 8 x 10(-4)
Torr. Contrary to experiments using molecular beam epitaxy. we find that
the two-dimensional island density in UHV-CVD cannot be directly
described by the standard nucleation theory. We discuss this point and
show that the variation of the steady-state hydrogen coverage on the
surface during pressure- or temperature-dependent experiments can
explain the observed two-dimensional island density behaviour. (C) 1998
Elsevier Science B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Albertini1998,
  author = {Albertini, D and Thibaudau, F and Masson, L and Salvan, F},
  title = {Nucleation behaviour during silicon UHV-CVD on Si(111)7 x 7},
  journal = {SURFACE SCIENCE},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {400},
  number = {1-3},
  pages = {109-115},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-6028(97)00847-9}
}
Masson, L., Albertini, D., Thibaudau, F. and Salvan, F. Si(111)-(7 x 7) under silane UHV-LPCVD: A STM study 1998 SURFACE REVIEW AND LETTERS
Vol. 5(1), pp. 55-61 
article DOI  
Abstract: In this work, we present a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) study of
the LPCVD (low pressure chemical vapor deposition) growth of Si on
Si(111)-(7 x 7) using silane (SiH4) decomposition. Surface reactivities
have been studied at room and high temperature (700 < T < 800 K), and
the major chemical mechanisms have been identified at an atomic scale on
the basis of room temperature STM images of the reacted surfaces. The
study provides a better understanding of nucleation and initial stages
of growth. More particularly, we show that the growth kinetics and the
final structure of the film are different from what is observed by
molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth.
BibTeX:
@article{Masson1998,
  author = {Masson, L and Albertini, D and Thibaudau, F and Salvan, F},
  title = {Si(111)-(7 x 7) under silane UHV-LPCVD: A STM study},
  journal = {SURFACE REVIEW AND LETTERS},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {5},
  number = {1},
  pages = {55-61},
  note = {5th International Conference on the Structure of Surfaces (ICS0S 5), UNIV D AIX MARSEILLE, AIX PROVENCE, FRANCE, JUL 08-12, 1996},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218625X9800013X}
}
Thibaudau, F., Albertini, D., Masson, L. and Salvan, F. Comment on ``STM study of low pressure adsorption of silane on Si (111)-(7 x 7)'' - Reply 1998 SURFACE SCIENCE
Vol. 409(3), pp. L718-L719 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Thibaudau1998,
  author = {Thibaudau, F and Albertini, D and Masson, L and Salvan, F},
  title = {Comment on ``STM study of low pressure adsorption of silane on Si (111)-(7 x 7)'' - Reply},
  journal = {SURFACE SCIENCE},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {409},
  number = {3},
  pages = {L718-L719}
}
Thibaudau, F., Albertini, D., Masson, L. and Salvan, F. Surface reaction mechanisms on Si(111)-(7x7) during silane UHV-CVD 1997 SURFACE SCIENCE
Vol. 385(2-3), pp. 357-364 
article DOI  
Abstract: We report an STM study of the Si(111)-(7 x 7) surface after silane
adsorption in the temperature range 700-800 K. At these temperatures, we
show that the decomposition of the adsorbed species and their subsequent
diffusion lead to the etching of Si adatoms from the dimer adatom
structure (DAS) and to the formation of hydrogenated silicon-atom
clusters on the faulted part of the unit cell. We have also studied the
steady state of the surface under static silane pressure. We conclude
that hydrogen desorption occurs from these clusters, leading to a
first-order desorption process. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.
BibTeX:
@article{Thibaudau1997,
  author = {Thibaudau, F and Albertini, D and Masson, L and Salvan, F},
  title = {Surface reaction mechanisms on Si(111)-(7x7) during silane UHV-CVD},
  journal = {SURFACE SCIENCE},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {385},
  number = {2-3},
  pages = {357-364},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/S0039-6028(97)00260-4}
}
Albertini, D., Thibaudau, F. and Masson, L. STM study of low pressure adsorption of silane on Si(111)7x7 1996 SURFACE SCIENCE
Vol. 350(1-3), pp. L216-L220 
article DOI  
Abstract: We report a study of silane adsorption on the Si(111)7 x 7 surface. We
have been interested in the first stages of chemisorption at room
temperature. Reactive sites of the unit cell have been clearly
identified on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) images: the reaction
involves the rest atom and the adjacent adatom of the DAS structure with
preferential adsorption on the center adatom. We propose an original
chemisorption mechanism which leads to the formation of two SiH2 species
by chemisorption and involves the breaking of Si-Si backbonds of the
adatom.
BibTeX:
@article{Albertini1996,
  author = {Albertini, D and Thibaudau, F and Masson, L},
  title = {STM study of low pressure adsorption of silane on Si(111)7x7},
  journal = {SURFACE SCIENCE},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {350},
  number = {1-3},
  pages = {L216-L220},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-6028(96)01340-4}
}
Ramonda, M., Albertini, D., Dallaporta, H., Dumas, P., Marine, W., Masson, L., Pierrisnard, R., Thibaudau, F., Tonneau, D. and Salvan, F. Elaboration of silicon clusters by CVD silane or laser ablation 1996 MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING
Vol. 30(1-4), pp. 443-446 
article DOI  
Abstract: Silicon clusters have been promoted by thermal decomposition of Silane
(SiH4) on silicon (111)-(7x7). The adsorption of silane molecule at room
temperature has been studied and a mechanism for adsorption is found to
be 2.5 10(-5). The effect of substrate proposed. The sticking
coefficient at room temperature was temperature and gas pressure on the
formation of clusters has been investigated to determine the process
parameters windows leading to silicon islands formation or epitaxial
growth by step flow.
Furthermore, silicon clusters have been elaborated by laser ablation.
The deposit morphology has been observed by AFM studies. The structures
obtained were found to be luminescent in the visible range under UV or
visible illumination.
BibTeX:
@article{Ramonda1996,
  author = {Ramonda, M and Albertini, D and Dallaporta, H and Dumas, P and Marine, W and Masson, L and Pierrisnard, R and Thibaudau, F and Tonneau, D and Salvan, F},
  title = {Elaboration of silicon clusters by CVD silane or laser ablation},
  journal = {MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {30},
  number = {1-4},
  pages = {443-446},
  note = {International Conference on Micro-Engineering and Nano-Engineering 1995 (MNE 95), AIX EN PROVENCE, FRANCE, SEP 25-29, 1995},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-9317(95)00283-9}
}